Frozen Shoulder

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Frozen shoulder

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by stiffness, pain, and limited range of motion in the shoulder joint. It typically develops gradually over time and can significantly impact daily activities and quality of life.


  1. Inflammation: Inflammation of the shoulder capsule, a connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint, leads to the characteristic tightening and thickening associated with frozen shoulder.
  2. Scar Tissue Formation: In some cases, the inflammation triggers the production of excessive scar tissue within the shoulder capsule, further restricting movement.
  3. Immobilization: Prolonged immobilization of the shoulder joint due to injury, surgery, or medical conditions can contribute to the development of frozen shoulder.
  4. Underlying Health Conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, or cardiovascular disease may increase the risk of developing frozen shoulder.


  1. Pain: Dull or aching pain in the shoulder joint, typically worsening with movement or pressure.
  2. Stiffness: Gradual onset of stiffness in the shoulder joint, making it difficult to perform activities such as reaching overhead, combing hair, or reaching behind the back.
  3. Limited Range of Motion: Decreased ability to move the shoulder joint in various directions, including abduction, flexion, and external rotation.
  4. Progressive Worsening: Symptoms often worsen over time, with the shoulder becoming increasingly stiff and painful.


  1. Physical Therapy: Gentle stretching and range of motion exercises prescribed by a physical therapist can help improve flexibility and reduce stiffness in the shoulder joint.
  2. Pain Management: Over-the-counter pain relievers or anti-inflammatory medications may help alleviate discomfort associated with frozen shoulder.
  3. Heat and Cold Therapy: Applying heat packs or cold compresses to the shoulder can help reduce pain and inflammation, promoting relaxation and improved mobility.
  4. Steroid Injections: Corticosteroid injections into the shoulder joint can help reduce inflammation and provide temporary relief from pain and stiffness.
  5. Joint Mobilization: Manual manipulation techniques performed by a qualified healthcare professional can help loosen the shoulder joint and improve range of motion.
  6. Surgery: In severe cases where conservative treatments fail to provide relief, surgical intervention such as shoulder manipulation under anesthesia or arthroscopic release may be considered to break up scar tissue and improve joint mobility.


  1. Early Intervention: Seeking prompt medical attention for shoulder pain or stiffness can help prevent the progression of frozen shoulder.
  2. Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular shoulder exercises and stretches to maintain flexibility and range of motion can help prevent stiffness and reduce the risk of developing frozen shoulder.
  3. Posture Awareness: Maintaining good posture and avoiding prolonged periods of immobilization can help prevent shoulder stiffness and pain.
  4. Control Underlying Conditions: Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or thyroid disorders can reduce the risk of developing frozen shoulder.

Overall, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential in managing frozen shoulder effectively and preventing long-term complications. Individuals experiencing persistent shoulder pain or stiffness should consult with a healthcare professional for evaluation and personalized treatment recommendations.