Know Your Knee Problems

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Know Your Knee Problems

Knee joint is a hinge joint between femur (Thigh Bone) and Tibia (Leg Bone).

Stability of knee joint is provided by rope like structures called as ligaments & 2 semi circular meniscus.

Important ligaments are Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), Posterior Cruciate Ligament(PCL), Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) and Medical Collateral Ligament (MCL).

Ligament Injury:

  • Caused by accidents or sports injuries.
  • Causes pain and instability on activities.
  • Majority of cases can be treated by Key Hole (ACL & PCL)- Mini open surgery (LCL & MCL).

Chondromalacia Patella:

  • It is also known as runners knee. It is a condition where the cartilage on the under surface of the patella (Knee Cap) deteriorates and softens causing pain.
  • It is caused by repeated stress on knee cap as in running, sports etc.
  • It is most commonly treated by physiotherapy and medication.

Chondral-Osteochondral Injuries:

  • These are injuries to cartilage of the knee joint.
  • These are caused by Trauma, Sports injuries, Osteochondritis Desiccants etc.
  • Small injuries are treated by making small holes in the defect (Microfracture), Mosaicplasty, or Stem Cell Therapy (BMAC).

Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC):

  • Concentrated Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) is divided from a patient’s own Bone Marrow.
  • BMAC is high in stem cells, which are important in tissue regeneration and bone formation.
  • These stem cells are inserted into the Cartilage defect which transform into healthy cartilage.


It is damage to the cartilage of Knee joint due to various causes like age (osteoarthritis), Rheumatoid Arthritis or Trauma.

Knee Replacement

  • It is a procedure in which the damaged cartilage on thigh and leg bones are replace with metal and plastic.
  • Patient may require total Knee Replacement in Grade 4 Arthritis.

Consider TKR only when

  • You are unable to walk for more than 1KM.
  • Difficulty in standing for more than 30Min.
  • You are having pain on rest.

Sometimes patient may have Arthritis only on the inner side of knee, these patients require unicondylar knee replacement.

Newer techniques include computer navigated knee surgery & Robotic knee replacement.

Mobility – Stability

Restroing the stability of joints by latest arthroscopic (Key Hole) techniques and the mobility of joints by replacement (Arthroplasty).


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